Thierry Bolloré started his career in 1990 at Michelin, as shop manager in a heavy truck tire factory. In 1993, he became Chief of Process and Quality Central Group for worldwide heavy truck factories, prior to taking the head of Method Group for heavy truck business units in Europe, South America, Africa and Asia. In 1997, he moved to Japan, as Industrial Assistant of the Michelin Passenger Car factory, and to Thailand in 1998, as production manager in truck factory, before being named Managing Director of Truck and Aircraft Businesses.

He was appointed Vice President in charge of industry for Michelin Aircraft Business worldwide in 2002. Thierry Bolloré joined Faurecia in 2005 to become Vice President Asia of Exhaust Systems Product Group, based in China, and then Vice President Worldwide in charge of Marketing, R&D, Programs, Strategy, Business Development. In 2010, he moved to Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies, as Vice President in charge of Europe and South Africa prior to becoming Vice-President Worldwide, responsible for Industry, Quality and Purchasing.

Thierry Bolloré joined Groupe Renault in September 2012. He was appointed Executive Vice President for Manufacturing and Supply Chain in October 2012.

In September 2013, Thierry Bolloré was named Chief Competitive Officer. On 19 February 2018, he was named Groupe Renault Chief Operating Officer.

Thierry Bolloré is also a member of  the Groupe Renault Executive Committee, Chairman of the Management Board of Renault-Nissan B.V. and sits on the AVTOVAZ Board of Directors and on the DRAC (Dong Feng Renault Automotive Company) Board of Directors.

As of January 24, 2019, Thierry Bolloré is appointed Chief Executive Officer of Renault S.A. and Chairman of Renault S.A.S.